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MessagePosté le: Ven 21 Sep - 11:10 (2018)    Sujet du message: One other English architect Répondre en citant

The design and style of nineteenth century furniture were influenced by three dominant factors. The first of these was historical revivalism of a style which had been popular in the past. At times the overall effect of a piece of revival furniture was that of a reproduction of a model from the past; at other times antique elements were applied to a form of a completely different style. Historical revivalism survived in one manner or another throughout the entire century.

Around the middle of the century Authentic Darius Leonard Jersey , and continuing until its end, there were certain designers and tastemakers who advocated a break with revivalism. These men were responsible for the second factor of progressive tendencies in furniture design. The furniture produced under this influence was sometimes free from revival decoration, and in other instances it had some mechanical or technical innovation incorporated into it. The third influence on nineteenth century furniture was the utilization of new materials in design and construction. Even though some of the earlier furniture builders had on occasion utilized materials other than wood, the nineteenth century saw a rise in the use of materials like iron Authentic Quenton Nelson Jersey , wire, tubular metal, and various organic materials like cane, rattan Le'Raven Clark Jersey , animal horn, etc. However, historical revivalism was the considered to be the major influence during the century.

The initial revival design that became significant at the start of the nineteenth century was the Classical. This was a design which was based on decorative motifs and authentic furniture forms of ancient Greece and Rome. Since the furniture of nineteenth century America was still greatly influenced by taste in England and Prance, it might be well to summarize movements in these countries which were important in developing the Classical style.

As far back as 1730 the English architect William Kent had started to utilize such Classical techniques as Greek keys and egg-and-dart moldings to Baroque furniture. The furniture style was not greatly affected in any way Ryan Kelly Jersey , because the methods were merely applications of alien devices to the surface of the piece. This step, which was the first in the creation of the Classical style, was copied by other designers in both England and France until around 1760. The second step was the development of a straight leg which was carved or turned, in contrast to the curvilinear lines of the popular Rococo style.

One other English architect Nyheim Hines Jersey , Robert Adam, has often been considered to be the one who created this innovation around 1765. But there is some other accounts that the straight leg was utilized in France as well at around the same time. The creations of Adam were interpreted into furniture styles by George Hepplewhite in his Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer Guide in 1788 and Thomas Sheraton in his The Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer Drawing-Book around 1791. These books were a dominant influence in disseminating this phase of the Classical style. The third development in the creation of the Classical style was the copying of actual Greco-Roman furniture forms. The two forms most often copied were a chair form called klismos and a bench and chair form called curule. The klismos form is composed of a horizontal solid cresting piece that supports the back with the front and rear legs, flaring outward in a saber line. The curule is the familiar X-shaped support that meets with the top of the bench and supports it on the floor.

These archaeological designs were utilized by two French designers, Charles Percier and Pierre P. L. Fontaine Henry Anderson Jersey , who in 1801 published an assortment of plates in this style that was known as Recueil de Decorations Interieures. These two men were mainly responsible for developing what is known as the Empire Design; at the time when Napoleon Bonaparte forged his Empire in 1804, he annointed Percier and Fontaine as his court decorators. Some of the Greco-Roman motifs that popped up in their crations were acanthus leaves, cornucopias, swans T.J. Green Jersey , eagles, dolphins, and monopodia which is an assortment of animal head and leg into a one element.

It was intended that only the rich utilize the furniture and rooms shown in the Recueil collection. The furniture was fabricated from mahogany and rosewood and magnificently adorned with ormolu mounts and it was quite large and cubical in presence. The Napoleon Egyptian campaign increased the popularity of another set of ancient decorative motifs that were incorporated into the Empire style. The massive solidity of Egyptian design was reflected in many furniture forms, and such motifs as the lotus Marlon Mack Jersey , sphinx, hawk, and hieroglyphics were used as decorative detail.

After the Bourbon Restoration was complete in 1830, the spirit of the Empire was still kept alive in cabinetmaking. The heaviness continued Tarell Basham Jersey , although some of the Restoration and Charles X furniture was stripped of much of its ormolu detail. Mahogany was less much less as fruitwoods became a favorite. The gondola chair, which was an alteration of the klismos style where the back was enclosed, was very fashionable in the Restoration and Louis Philippe era.
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